Some causes of periodontal disease are:
|Plaque is a mostly invisible
bacterial loaded film that clings to teeth and gums. Plaque
is the soft, sticky layer of bacteria, which is constantly
forming on the teeth. Usually it is invisible to the
naked eye, but when a person is not brushing adequately, it
can build up to where it appears to be a thick whitish
coating on the teeth at the gum line. This
bacterial causes irritation of the tissues that support your
teeth. This irritation can lead to inflammations and
infection that can destroy your gum and bone tissue.
When plaque is not completely removed it may harden or
calcify into a rough deposit called tarter or calculus.
The only way to limit the damage caused by the tartar to
your gum tissue is to have your teeth
cleaned regularly at the dental office. |
|What foods are best avoided to maintain
good periodontal health? The top culprit chosen by
periodontists was popcorn, because the husks can
get caught in between the teeth and gums and cause
|Oral-disease-causing microbes like:
gingivalis bacterium are associated with chronic and
severe adult periodontitis. The
problem with calculus
is that it harbors plaque. Bacterial plaque, or reaction to
it, is what the problem is that causes gum disease.|
|Impacted food, alcohol, improper use of
toothpicks and tobacco products may irritate gum tissue.
|The results suggest that persistent
alcohol abuse increases periodontitis
, gum disease, development by heightening the loss of
attachment through recession of gingival margins. J
|Badly aligned teeth, defective fillings,
poorly fitting bridges or partial dentures and harmful habits
such as grinding you teeth can cause problems.
|Poor diet that causes nutritional deficiency
and reduces the body's ability to fight off infection.
|There is increasing evidence that decay
and periodontal disease are both contagious diseases. The
causative bacteria can be passed from parent to child or
from lover to lover by kissing. People who never had a
cavity may suddenly have several (or more) because of the
person’s new relationships! Practical advice---if your
kids or your lover have active decay or gum and bone
disease, you BOTH may need treatment, including the use of
antibacterial rinses, for the
disease to be controlled. This is a major paradigm shift
in the treatment of dental disease.|
|Hormone fluctuations during pregnancy can
cause pregnancy gingivitis.
|Oral contraceptive, steroid, cancer therapy
drugs and anti-epilepsy drugs will affect gum tissue.
|Such conditions as
|Periodontal Disease can be spread through
that can cause gum disease
|Poor oral hygiene habits
cause periodontitis. All
the body needs is 0.05mm of calculus to allow for the
formation of bacterial antigens that cause gum disease.|
calcium intake is a risk factor for gum disease.
Women aged 20-39 with the lowest calcium intake had a risk
of 54% for periodontal diseases. Women who
took moderate calcium supplements lowered their risk by
Smoking-causes calculus, deep pockets, bone loss,
infection and chronic gum disease. It damages the
natural processes that the body uses to fight against gum
disease, it reduces saliva levels, restricts blood flow, and
damages your immune system. The nicotine causes
significant changes in the blood vessels and the tissue of
the mouth are getting attacked by the heat and smoke itself.|
anger and gum
|Stage and ages in life. Hormonally
triggered life stages like puberty, pregnancy and menopause,
where estrogen and
progesterone levels climb, causing gums to react
differently to the bacteria found in plaque.|
|It only takes 0.05mm
of bacteria plaque to allow for bacterial antigen formation
which is a pretty thin layer and EASY to accumulate in hard
to get at areas. Dental plaque as a biofilm, just like in
your arteries. Plaque is NOT chemically causative in the
PD process, CALCULUS is. |
|Half of the population may be genetically
predisposed to periodontal disease.|
|It is believed that
gum disease may caused by a gene that causes a defect in the
disease is now proving to be an autoimmune type disease, with
bacterial toxins as the trigger.
PD, Arthritis, Cardiovascular
Disease, Cerebral Vascular Disease, Diabetes, and a host of
many more are all linked by the fact that they are immune
disorders dressed up as "other issues"
PD was almost totally
controlled by 2 genes that controlled inflammation. It
is almost 100% a genetic disease that can be made much worse
It demonstrates itself in the mouth and
is nothing more then an Immune System Gone Awry. It needs a
trigger to start but once started it only takes minimal
forces to keep it going. U
of Wash, Dr.Roy Page, stated that perio is a genetic
disease. If you have the two bad genes that adversely effect
the way your body responds to irritation with an exaggerated
inflammatory response and smoke you will loose teeth early.|
People with PD have a defective immune response to the
antigens that the perio pathogens produce.
Thus PD as an immune disease that is caused initially by
poor home care and bacterial antigens but is propagated by a
systemic defect that some have and some don't.
is a bacterially induced immune response.
under stress have deeper pockets than non-anxious smokers
Bacterial biofilm triggers periodontal infection, and stress
can aggravate the situation. Past studies have demonstrated
that people with psychiatric disorders have more periodontal
disease. High stress levels combined|
with smoking may lead to more periodontal infection.
High-stress levels combined with smoking may lead to more
Anxiety, Gingival Inflammation and
Periodontal Disease Johannsen, A., Asberg, M., Söder, P.,
Söder, B.: Anxiety, Gingival Inflammation and
Periodontal Disease in Non-Smokers and Smokers - An
Epidemiological Study. J Clin Perio 32: 488-491, 2005. Cited
Dental Hygienetown, PerioReports
|It is caused by mixed infection of
bacterial + host response to bacterial infection= gum
disease. It is the interaction of the host or your immune
response with pathogenic bacterial that determines whether
gum disease is initiated or whether disease progresses. It
is important to recognize certain risk factors make certain
people more susceptible to gum disease.**|
Start cleaning BETWEEN
your teeth. Periodontal disease begins between the
teeth. The area between the teeth are more prone
to infection than facial or tongue gum tissue surfaces
simply by anatomy. This tissue is not keratinized like
tissue found on the facial and tongue surfaces.
Non-keratinized tissue is more susceptible to breakdown.
It is also a very protected area, NOT reached by brushing or
Smokers, diabetics and those taking steroids, oral
contraceptives and certain cancer drugs are a higher risk
for developing periodontitis.
Alcohol is a drying agent and causes sloughing to occur so
as it does the remnant cells are "food sources" for the
requires a carbohydrate rich environment while PD needs
So if we have a diet high in protein and we
are not exquisitely diligent on home care the remnant of the
protein feeds the antigen reaction.
Since the disease starts
between the teeth, it makes sense to start cleaning in
between the teeth and than brush. You can clean this
area with interdental brushes,
picks, floss, sticks, oral
irrigation, and automatic flossers.
remember this disease needs to be treated both in the office
and at home.++
is caused from an immune system that has gone off track and is
to the causes of heart disease, cancer and diabetes via the
immune system pathway.
Stress can cause Periodontal
Disease- stress is bad for your teeth.
Psychological stress can lead to elevated plaque levels, while
physical stress is linked to gingivitis (gum disease).
What’s more, caregivers helping people under these physical and
emotional stresses are also at increased risk for gum
disease.Experts believe chronic stress may lead to a
malfunction of some biological functions. Also, those who
are struggling with stress and those who care for them often
become depressed and slide on oral hygiene, if not giving up on
Gum disease leads to more than bleeding gums. It can affect the
integrity of your teeth and the bone that supports them. If
unchecked, gingivitis can lead to loose and missing teeth. When
this happens, teeth can often shift. It can be uncomfortable and
painful for your bite (not to mention your smile). Brushing at
least twice a day and flossing each night are the first step
toward protecting yourself from gum disease. Regular dental
check-ups and cleanings are also crucial. While these steps can
help reduce the risk of stress-related periodontal disease, they
don’t resolve the key problem – stress! Exercising and eating
right can help, and developing a hobby can be a fantastic
release. Talking about it can help as well.
Journal of Periodontology
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Cigarette Smoking and the
Adult smokers are
approximately three times as likely as non-smokers to have
periodontitis. The association between smoking and
attachment loss is even stronger when the definition of
periodontitis is restricted to the most severely affected
subjects. Smokers have a diminished response to periodontal
therapy and show approximately half as much improvement in
probing depths and clinical attachment levels following non-
surgical and various surgical modalities of therapy. Implant
failures in smokers are twice those of non-smokers, with a
higher failure rate in the maxillary arch .
Tobacco-induced alterations in microbial and host factors
contribute to these deleterious effects of smoking on the
periodontium. In longitudinal studies, the rate of periodontal
disease progression is increased in smokers, but decreases to
that of a non-smoker following tobacco cessation. Likewise, recent
non- smokers respond to periodontal therapy in a manner
similar to patients who have never smoked. Use the
five A's: ask – identify tobacco users; advise – advise
them to quit; assess – evaluate the patient's readiness to
quit; assist – offer assistance in cessation; and arrange
– follow up on cessation efforts. The addition of
pharmacotherapy to behavioral therapy, including nicotine
replacement therapy and bupropion, can increase cessation
rates. The most popular form of nicotine replacement therapy
is the patch, and its use has been shown to double
cessation rates compared to behavioral therapy alone. Use
of bupropion in combination with nicotine replacement therapy
may be particularly helpful for heavy smokers or smokers who
have experienced multiple failed attempts at cessation.
[J Periodontol 2004;75:196-209.]Georgia K. Johnson and
Margaret Hill [J Periodontology Feb 2004]
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may be a risk factor of gum disease!
Stress is associated with
poor oral hygiene, increased glucocorticoid secretion that can
depress immune function, increased insulin resistance and
potentially increased risk of periodontitis. Methods. The
authors examined the association between social support, anger
expression and periodontitis in 42,523 male.
Subjects who reported having at least one close friend had a
30 percent lower risk of developing periodontitis. Men who
participated in religious meetings or services had a 27
percent lower risk of developing periodontitis. Men who
reported being angry on a daily basis had a 43 percent higher
risk of developing periodontitis compared with men who
reported being angry seldom.
Prospective Study of Social Support, Anger Expression and Risk
of Periodontitis in Men Merchant A.T. et al., December 2003
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Porphyromonas gingivalis and FimA Type in Spouse Relationship Recent
findings suggest that the genotype of the fimbriae is one of
the important factors in infection by P. gingivalis.
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the transmission
of P. gingivalis between spouses.
Intrafamilial transmission of infectious bacteria was
significantly higher in couples. Conclusion: This study
suggests that fimA type II,, may be an important factor in the
transmission of P. gingivalis between spouses. [ J
Clinical studies prove
Untreated Periodontal Disease - A follow-up on 30 cases.
Randall J. Harris, Journal of Periodontology, May 2003
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Harvard Medical School researchers studied longevity
and found one of the most important contributing factors was
daily flossing. Because it
removes bacteria from the teeth and gums, flossing helps to
prevent periodontal disease and gingivitis. Another study
found that men with periodontitis had a whopping 72%
greater risk of developing coronary disease. Gingivitis
was associated with a 42% increased risk for men. Nov
Source: Dr. W.B.Willams
^ Dental Abstracts Jan/Feb 2001.
This is an EXCELLENT
article on Periodontal
What it is and how to get rid of it
** Etiology Fast Forwarded: The
Host Bacterial Interaction Theory and the Risk Continuum Hein.
Contemporary Dental Assisting pg 18-27 Sept 05.
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February 27, 2007